Fauna of the Mediterranean sea
The Mediterranean sea is a part of the ancient Tethys ocean, with an area of 2.5 million square kilometers; the volume of water in the sea is about 3.8 million cubic km, and average depth is more than 1.5 thousand meters. In such considerable dimensions of the Mediterranean sea, its fauna is characterized by significant species diversity, but populations of animals of each species is relatively small. This is mainly due to a small number of plankton in marine waters.
In the Mediterranean there are 593 species of fish, of them in Israeli waters, home to 291 species (mackerel, herring, mullet, tuna, dolphinfish, palamidi, horse mackerel and many others). The Mediterranean coast of Israel encountered 4 species of flying fish. Many fish in the Mediterranean are of commercial importance.
In the waters of the sea there are more than 40 species of sharks. some of them reach a decent size – for example, in the Mediterranean meets the great blue shark, the largest predator of the sea; sixgill shark can reach up to 5 m in length. There are also rays (for example, mosaic Stingray, sea cat, etc.), as well as Mediterranean Moray, reaching a four-foot length.
In the Mediterranean you can meet 4 species of snook . or sea pike. Interestingly, about twenty new species appeared in Sredizemnomor after it was combined with the Red through the Suez canal; two species of barracudas also came from the red sea. Barracuda is a predatory fish that has sometimes 2 meters in length, but for humans they are not dangerous.
In connection with pollution of coastal waters, global climate change and destructive methods of fishing off the coast of Israel fish is becoming smaller . Over the past few years, the size of the catch in some areas, Israeli water decreased in 3 times. This is not a serious food problem for Israel, because fishing gives the country only 16% received at the counters of local fish, the rest is grown (2005 data). However, the fauna of the Mediterranean sea may soon be poorer in several kinds of bottom flat sharks. Disappears in the Mediterranean and bluefin tuna.
Marine mammals include dolphins (belobochka, bottlenose, pilot, grey dolphins, etc.) and the white-bellied seal (Monachus monachus, very rare). Meet killer whales and porpoises.
In the Mediterranean sea there are 3 species of sea turtles . but in reproduce here only 2 species.
Molluscs are represented variously (about 850 species), including the edible oysters and Mediterranean mussels. Also interesting is eglence (lat. Muricidae), which have served as raw materials for purple paint. The Mediterranean sea is home to the only species of cones (beautiful clams, mostly inhabitants of tropical seas, having a characteristic twisted shell and venom glands).
There are crabs, lobster, shrimp. They can be purchased at the marinas in the coastal cities of Israel; that the inhabitants of the sea in Portugal, in acre :
In the waters of the sea can meet a variety of jellyfish (including the beautiful, but poisonous finaliy, it “Portuguese ship”) and siphonophora. There are invertebrates — squid, cuttlefish, octopus. Up to depths of 2 meters is inhabited by thousands of sea urchins. There are corals and sponges.